How Centrifugation Works & How We Save You Time & Money

Excedr - Centrifuges

The Excedr lease program is able to source most instrument types and can accommodate any brand preferences your end-user might have. Request an estimate today and see how leasing a laboratory centrifuge can benefit you and your laboratory.

All equipment brands/models are available

Excedr’s Centrifuge Leasing Program Has Numerous Advantages:

  • Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
  • Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
  • Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
  • Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
  • Conserves working capital,  enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
  • Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences

*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.

a microplate well leaning against a graduated cylinder on top of glassware storage

Centrifugation is used in various research and clinical laboratories for many different types of separation based on density.

Pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies, as well as hospitals, blood banks, diagnostics labs, and even food & beverage companies, have significant use for centrifugation of samples performed using a centrifuge. Simply put, a centrifuge is a machine with a rapidly rotating container that applies centrifugal force to its contents. 

It is an indispensable piece of equipment because it can separate mixtures with relative densities, insoluble particles, immiscible liquids, sediment suspended solids, and blood. It can even simulate different types of gravity for astronaut training. 

Centrifuges operate by placing an object in rotation around a fixed axis and applying an accelerative force perpendicular to the spin axis. The amount of accelerative force applied to a sample in a centrifuge is defined as the relative centrifugal force (RCF), or g-force. RCF is measured as multiple’s of Earth’s gravitational field (g). 

There are three main types of centrifuges designed for various applications:

  • Industrial-scale centrifuges: Commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids or separate immiscible liquids. 
  • High-speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges: Capable of providing very high accelerations can separate fine particles down to the nano-scale, as well as molecules of different masses. 
  • Gas centrifuges: Specifically used for isotope separation.

While centrifuges are considered a ubiquitous piece of laboratory equipment, you may still have questions about which model will fit your needs best. There are important considerations to make, and they mostly involve centrifugation speed, configuration flexibility, available lab space, and ease of use. 

Read on to learn more about these considerations and the types of centrifugation and centrifuges most commonly used in clinical and research laboratories.

Centrifugation Methods, Centrifuge Types, & Their Uses

a hand face up balancing a screw on its index finger

There are multiple types of centrifuges and centrifugation. While centrifugation is classified by application fit, centrifuges can also be classified by the intended use or rotor design.


What is centrifugation? In short, it’s the act of separating particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, and medium viscosity using centrifugal force at various speeds and applying that force at different angles.

There are different types of centrifugation, with the two main types being differential centrifugation and density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, density gradient centrifugation can be divided further: isopycnic and rate-zonal centrifugation.

Differential centrifugation:

This type is considered the simplest form of separation by centrifugation. It’s used to separate certain organelles from whole cells to further analyze specific parts of cells by applying different centrifugation cycles. These cycles facilitate faster sedimentation rates that naturally occur to particles of different densities or sizes in a suspension. In other words, by subjecting the suspension to increasing levels of force, particles of specific sizes will sediment at different rates more quickly.

Density gradient centrifugation:

On the other hand, this type is used to separate particles based on density as they pass through a density gradient while being subjected to centrifugal force. It is based on the principle that molecules settle once they reach a medium with the same density as their own. Using a medium with a density gradient that either decreases or increases, particles will separate at different layers as centrifugal force is applied.

The two types of density gradient centrifugation, isopycnic and rate-zonal, differ in that the rate-zonal method is used to separate particles that vary in size but not in density. In contrast, the isopycnic method separates particles that differ in density but not size.


Rotor Design

There are at least three types of centrifuge rotors. These include fixed-angle rotors, swinging head (or swinging bucket) rotors, and vertical rotors. Centrifuge models can be classified based on the rotor design.

Fixed-angle rotor centrifuges are designed to hold the sample containers at a constant angle relative to the central axis. The angle the rotor holds the containers is typically 45°, which causes sedimentation to form on the side of the tubes. It can potentially be problematic if the solids get caught at the angle of the tube.

Swinging head (or swinging bucket) centrifuges, in contrast to fixed-angle centrifuges, have a hinge where the sample containers are attached to the central rotor. This allows all of the samples to swing outwards as the centrifuge spins.

Lastly, vertical rotor centrifuges differ from fixed-angle or swinging bucket rotors in that these types hold the sample containers in an upright position. Because the particles in suspension only have a short distance to separate, the run time is reduced, and the resolution is increased. A vertical rotor is commonly used for isopycnic and other density gradient separations.


Intended Uses by Type

A centrifuge’s intended use varies on its usability and purpose:

  • Laboratory centrifuges are general-purpose instruments of several types with distinct but overlapping capabilities. These include clinical centrifuges, superspeed centrifuges, and preparative ultracentrifuges.
  • Analytical ultracentrifuges are designed to perform sedimentation analysis of macromolecules using the principles devised by Theodor Svedberg.
  • Haematocrit centrifuges are used to measure the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.
  • Gas centrifuges, including Zippe-type centrifuges, are used for isotopic separations in the gas phase.

Many laboratory-scale centrifuges are used in chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and clinical medicine to isolate and separate suspensions and immiscible liquids. They vary widely in speed, capacity, temperature control, and other characteristics.

Specifically, laboratory centrifuges employ different fixed-angle and swinging bucket rotors, each of which can carry various amounts of centrifuge tubes while being rated for specific maximum speeds. Controls vary from simple electrical timers to programmable models that control acceleration and deceleration rates, running speeds, and temperature regimes.

Ultracentrifuges spin the rotors under vacuum, eliminating air resistance and enabling precise temperature control. Zonal rotors and continuous flow systems are capable of handling bulk and larger sample volumes, respectively, in a laboratory-scale instrument.


Laboratory Centrifuge Types

Here are a variety of lab-grade centrifuges available, many of which have specific benefits the end-user can take advantage of.

For example, microcentrifuges, devices for small tubes from 0.2 ml to 2.0 ml (microtubes), come equipped with 96 well-plates and offer a compact design with a small footprint. Clinical centrifuges are moderate-speed devices used for clinical applications like blood collection tubes.

Multipurpose high-speed centrifuges are devices used for a broad range of tube sizes and provide high variability; however, they typically have a large footprint.

Ultracentrifuges, which are analytical and preparative models, are used in cell and molecular biology and biochemistry to separate tiny particles in solution. This includes viruses, viral particles, plasmid DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipoproteins.

Because of the heat generated by air friction (even in ultracentrifuges, where the rotor operates in a good vacuum), and the frequent necessity of maintaining samples at a given temperature, many types of laboratory centrifuges are refrigerated and temperature controlled.


We Offer Flexible Laboratory Centrifuge Leases to Fit Every Need

three shapes shown one after another: an erlenmeyer flask, boiling flask, and graduated cylinder

Centrifugation is an essential tool in various laboratory and industrial settings, as the separation of molecules is a critical first step in processing and manufacturing. If you’re interested in leasing a centrifuge, whether it be a small benchtop, large capacity refrigerated, high speed refrigerated, or ultracentrifuge, we can help.

Furthermore, we can add the items directly to your centrifuge lease if you require other general lab equipment, such as a lab balance. Reach us today by calling (510) 982-6552 or filling out our contact form online to get in touch with us.

Operating Lease

This off-balance sheet financing structure provides three options at the end of the term. The lessee has the option to return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible which yields additional monetary savings.


If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your device and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale-leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments. This also frees up money in your budget rather than tying it down to a fixed asset.

Centrifuge Manufacturers u0026 Models on the Market
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MiniSpin, MiniSpin plus, 5418 R, 5424 R, 5425, 5427 R, 5430, 5430 R, 5702, 5702 R, 5702 RH, 5804, 5804 R, 5810, 5810 R, 5910 R, 5920 R, Vacufuge plus

Thermo Fisher Scientific:
Sorvall Legend Micro 17, Sorvall Legend Micro 21, Sorvall Legend Micro 17R, Sorvall Legend Micro 21R, mySPIN 6, mySPIN 12, MicroCL 21, Heraeus Pico 21, MicroCL 21R, Heraeus Fresco 21, MicroCL 17, Heraeus Pico 17, MicroCL 17R, Heraeus Fresco 17R, Sorvall ST 8, Heraeus Megafuge 8, Thermo Scientific SL 8, Sorvall ST 16, Heraeus Megafuge 16, Thermo Scientific SL 16, Sorvall ST 40, Heraeus Megafuge 40, SL4 Plus Centrifuge Series, Sorvall Legend X1, Heraeus Multifuge X1


EBA 200, EBA 200 S, EBA 270, EBA 280, EBA 280 S, Haematokrit 200, Mikro 185, Mikro 200, Mikro 220, Rotofix 32 A, Universal 320, Universal 320R, Rotina 380, Rotina 380R, Rotina 420, Rotina 420R, Rotanta 460, Rotofix 46, Rotanta 460 RC, Rotanta 460 RF, Rotixa 500 RS, Roto Silenta 630 RS, Rotina 380 Robotic, Mikro 220 Robotic, Rotanta 460 Robotic, Zentrimix 380 R

StatSpin VT, SSVT-1- StatSpin VT, StatSpin Express 2, SSX2 StatSpin Express 2, StatSpin Express 3, SSX3, StatSpin Express 4, SSH4, StatSpin Cytofuge 2 Cytocentrifuge, CF02, StatSpin MP, SSMP, StatSpin CritSpin Digital Reader, CSD2, RH12, Optima XPN Series, Optima XPN 100K, Optima XPN-80, Optima XPN-80-IVD, Optima XPN-90-IVD, Optima XPN-100-IVD, Optima XPN-80-IVD (Biosafe), Optima XPN-90-IVD (Biosafe), Optima XPN-100-IVD (Biosafe), Optima XE Series, Optima XE-90, Optima XE-100, Optima XE-90-IVD, Optima XE-100-IVD, Optima XE-90-IVD (Biosafe), Optima MAX-XP, Optima MAX-XP Tabletop Ultracentrifuge, Optima MAX-XP (Biosafe), Optima MAX-TL, Optima MAX-TL (Biosafe), Airfuge Air-Driven, Avanti J-15, Avanti J-15R, Avanti JXN-30 Series, Avanti JXN-30 Three-Phase, Avanti JXN-30 IVD, Avanti JXN-30 Three-Phase, Avanti JXN-26 Series, Avanti Absorbance/Interference Bundle with An-60 Ti Rotor, ProteomeLab XL-A/XL-I, ProteomeLab XL-A/XL-I Protein Characterization System with An-50 Ti rotoMicrofuge 16 Ambient with FX241.5P, Microfuge 16 Non-Refrigerated, Allegra X-14R Aerosolve, Allegra X-14R Aerosolve ARIES

MSE (Measuring and Scientific Equipment):
Harrier R, Harrier, Hawk, Hawk R, Micro Centaur R, Fixed & Fast MicroCentaur R Microplate Hawk R, Swing out Hawk R, Fixed & Fast Hawk R, , MicroCentaur R Package, Hawk Package, Harrier Package

Centrisart A-14, Centrisart A14C,Centrisart G-16,Centrisart G-16C,Centrisart G-26C, BIOSAFE

Cole Parmer:
FS-3400, VS-4000 Mini Microcentrifuge, Argos Technology Flexifuge, MP Series Multipurpose, Argos Technologies Flexifuge Microcentrifuges,Porta FS-3500, MPR Series Multipurpose Refrigerated, VS3400 Variable Speed Small Benchtop, VS-13000 Variable-Speed Microcentrifuges, C2000 Microplate Centrifuge, High-Speed Microcentrifuge, C1612 High-Speed Microcentrifuge, C1612-E High-Speed Microcentrifuge, Raven Environmental F-10300-REDESIGNED, Raven Environmental F-10300-230, C1008-B Microcentrifuge, C1008-B-E Microcentrifuge, Western States 072755 laboratory Filtering, UPI CP-ICH22 Digital Fixed Speed, RevSpin Multi-Speed Digital Microcentrifuge, RS-200, Stuart SCF3 Microcentrifuge, L-K Industries TRANS-12/B2, L-K Industries TRANS-12/B4, L-K Industries TRANS-12/D2

Drucker Diagnostics:
DASH Series, DASH Apex 6, DASH Apex 12, DASH Flex 12, DASH Apex 24, Horizon Series, HORIZON 6 FA, HORIZON 6, HORIZON 12, HORIZON 24, HORIZON 6 Flex FA, HORIZON 6 Flex, HORIZON 12 Flex, HORIZON 24 Flex, 600/Collection Site Series, 614B, 642B, 642E, 12V Mobile Phlebotomy, 642M

NU-200R, NU-C300V, NU-C300R, NU-C300FR, NU-C200V, himac CP100WX, himac CP90WX, himac CR22N, himac CS120FNX, himac CS150FNX, himac CS150NX

NE 000GT/I, NE 000GT/M, NE000GT/R, NE 030GTI, NE030 Clifton Digital, NE040 Clifton

Prism Mini, MPS 1000 Mini Plate Spinner, Labnet Mini Centrifuges C1601, Spectrafuge, Slide Spinner, Prism, Prism R, Spectrafuge 24D,Spectrafuge 16M, Spectrafuge 6C, Hermle Z446

L-K Industries:
Transport SeriesBenchmark C Centrifuge, Benchmark S Centrifuge, Melton Centrifuge, Mini-Melton

Koehler Instruments:
K60002, K60092, K60002-ST, K60092-ST, K60002-PT, K60092-PT, K60002-FT, K60092-FT, K60094, K60005, K60095, K60005-FT, K60095-FT, K60095-FT8, K60005-FT8, K60006, K60096, K60006-FT, K60096-FT, KC3010, KC3019, KC3020, KC3029, KC3030, KC3039, KC3040, KC3049, KC3050, KC3059, KC3060, KC3069, KC3060-R, KC3068-C, KC3069-R, KC3070, KC3079, KC3078-R, KC3079-R, KC3070-R, KC3080, KC3089, KC3080-R, KC3088-R, KC3089-R, KC3090, KC3099, KC3090-R, KC3098-R, KC3099-R, KC4010 ASTM, KC4019 ASTM, KC4020 ASTM, KC4029 ASTM, KC4030 ASTM, KC4039 ASTM, KC4040 ASTM, KC4049 ASTM, KC2010, KC2019, KC2020, KC2020-R, KC2028-R, KC2029, KC2029-R, KC2030, KC2039, KC2030-R, KC2038-R, KC2040, KC2049, KC3069-R, KC2040-R, KC2049-R, KC2050, KC2059, KC2050-R, KC2059-R, KC2060, KC2069, KC2070, KC2079, KC2070-R, KC2078-R

IKA mini G, IKA G-L

Centurion Scientific Limited:
PrO-Hospital range, PrO-Easy Range, PrO-Hospital.E1, PrO-Hospital.E2, PrO-Hospital.E12S, PrO-Hospital.E3, PrO-Hospital.E4, PrO-Hospital.E34S, PrO-Hospital.E5, PrO-Hospital.Multi.S, PrO-Hospital.Multi.M, PrO-Hospital.ECyt, HL2, HL2R, HL3, HL3R, HL4, HL4, HL4FS, HL4FSR, 0.25lSerum SO, Serum FA, Serum HC, Serum MC, 0.5 Litre GP4, GP6, 1 litre MGP4, MGP6,PrO-CW, PrO-Cyto, PrO-PRP, PrO-PRPS, PrO-PRPM, PrO-PRPL,PrO-Analytical, C1006, C1015, C1015R, CR6000, CR6000R, CR7000, CR7000R, CR9000, CR9000R, CR9FS, CR9FSR, PrO-OilTest BE, PrO-OilTest BET, PrO-OilTest FSE, PrO-OilTest BSE, PrO-RoadRTL5, PrO-RoadRTL5R, PrO-RoadRTL7, Pro-Research, K1006, K1015, K1015R, KGPlus, K2015, K2015R, K241, K241R, K242, K242R, K243, K243R, K244, K244R, K244R, K244FS, K244FSR, PrO-Ed, PrO-EDB, PrO-EDS, PrO-ED, PrO-EDM, PrO-PRPL, PrO-Xtract, PrO-Xtract3, PrO-Xtract3R, PrO-XtractGFS3R, PrO-Xtract5, PrO-Xtract5R

Benchmark Scientific:
myFuge Mini, C1008, myFuge 12 Mini, C1012, PlateFuge Microcentrifuge, MC-12 High Speed Microcentrifuge, C1612, MC-24 Touch Microcentrifuge, StripSpin 12 Microcentrifuge, C1248, myFuge 5, C1005, C3100, C3200

Hermle Benchmark:
Z207-M, Z216-M Microcentrifuge, Z216-MK Refrigerated Microcentrifuge, Z206-A, Z306, ZZ326 Series, Z366 Series,Z446 Series, Z496-K, Z496-K-UC, Z032-HK, Z036-HK

LSE Compact, LSE High Speed Microcentrifuge, LSE Mini Microcentrifuge

Axyspin Mini Plate Spinner, PLATESPINNER-120, PLATESPINNER-230EU, Axyspin Refrigerated Microcentrifuge, 601-05-021, 601-05-031, MiniPlate Spinner, PLATESPINNER-230AU

and more!


Operating Capital Benefits

Operating Capital Benefits

Excedr's operating lease structure allows you to keep your business credit line open for expansions, staffing, and other operational expenses. Additionally, it strengthens the cash flow of your business and keeps cash reserves free for business development opportunities.

Effects on Credit

Effects on Credit

Leasing / renting provides you with non-dilutive financing and does not hinder your future borrowing ability. You're able to acquire the equipment you need without the baggage associated with traditional financing.

Speed of Approval

Speed of Approval

Excedr's program allows you to respond quickly as your need for equipment and technology arises. You can be approved with minimal documentation and have the equipment you need in operation and generating revenue for your business quickly.

Refurbished Equipment

Refurbished Equipment

Unlike traditional financing and leasing companies, the Excedr program can accommodate refurbished equipment in addition to demo units. If you are looking for additional cost-savings, we recommend considering this option.