It is the basis for many buffers, reagents, and cell cultures, and is regularly used for washing and cleaning applications. This means the water you use in your lab needs to be as sterile as possible in order to prevent contamination. If you use tap water, you will want to meet every standard regarding water purity to ensure it is free of organics and ultra-pure.
While tap water is considered somewhat pure, there are some classes of contaminants that can create problems for many laboratory tasks. This can include a range of particulates such as colloids, bacterias, gases, inorganic ions like zinc, and organics like total organic carbon (TOC).
In fact, TOC is one of the most essential factors to measure for in your water, and remove using a water purification system. Meeting strict Total Organic Carbon (TOC) water standards requirements is extremely vital, and TOC testing is becoming increasingly standard in validated water purification systems. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and ASTM international list TOC as one of the key substances to test for in any purified water system.
There are four water grades, or types, that are used to classify the quality or purity of water:
Each type of water has to undergo various processes to reach a specific standard of purity, including carbon filtering, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and more. The water grade reflects which type can be used for in laboratories. In other words, water purity classification helps scientists choose the quality of water that fits their specific needs.
High purity water has many uses in clinical diagnostics and medical research, as well as pharmaceutical control and R&D. The semiconductor and engineering industries also benefit from water purification.
If water quality is important to your work, having the proper water purification system installed is paramount. These systems, often referred to as high flow water purification systems, remove chemical contaminants through various techniques, such as de-ionization (DI) and reverse osmosis, and can come equipped with ultraviolet (UV) treatment systems.
The system can also range in capacity, from high capacity single tanks to dual-tank setups, supplying up to 40 liters per minute (L/min). High flow lab water system are typically equipped to handle ordinary tap water or pretreated water for most required laboratory applications.
Water purification systems use a variety of techniques to filter water, which are often combined to maximize performance. Understanding the various techniques used can help inform you on which system is best suited for your application needs.
Here is a list of just a small portion of techniques used to purify water:
This is a commonly used method that creates distilled water, which is considered very pure. Distillation involves boiling water and condensing the vapors into a sterilized container, effectively leaving behind any solid contaminants. Many water systems available offer a distillation method.
This technique applies a chemical process involving a specific type of resin or polymer called ion-exchange resin. The insoluble matrix acts as a medium to deionize water. Applying this exchange allows for both anions and cations to be replaced with hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
This removes mineral ions like sodium, iron, calcium, sulfate, and chloride from the water. Once the dissolved minerals have been replaced, the new ions are combined to form water. This can also be accomplished using an inexpensive method called electrodeionization, a technology that utilizes electricity alongside ion-exchange resin and membranes to deionize water.
This method applies activated carbon as a filter in the adsorption of impurities from an aqueous solution, effectively removing chemical elements like chlorine, particles such as sediment, and volatile organic compounds, organic chemicals that have high vapor pressure at room temperature. The pore structure of activated carbon works to trap any contaminant that needs to be removed.
Ultraviolet water purification is an extremely effective method for removing bacteria from water using germicidal ultraviolet light. The UV rays penetrate harmful pathogens in the water and destroy these microorganisms by disrupting their DNA.
Unlike water purification systems that use filtration to remove unwanted contaminants, UV treatment purifies the water without any use of filtration, so it is sometimes necessary to use both a filtration system and UV system to adequately treat water for use in experimentation. UV purification can treat water for a number of bacteria, including E. Coli, giardia, cholera, and hepatitis B.
This water purification process utilizes a partially permeable membrane to remove impurities. Applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure in order to capture suspended and dissolved chemical contaminants as well as biological ones. This result occurs because the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane while the pure solvent, in this case, water, is allowed to pass through to the other side.
Normally, the process of osmosis allows for a solvent to naturally pass through from an area of high water potential to low water potential, or solute concentration. By applying external pressure, this process is reversed. Reverse osmosis is used in conjunction with a variety of filtration methods that include microfiltration and ultrafiltration.
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Leases range from 2 to 5 years. Length will depend on several factors, including how long you want to use the equipment, equipment type, and your company’s financial position. These are standard factors leasing companies consider and help us tailor a lease agreement to fit your needs.
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