Overview & Resources
DNA is the central information storage system for all organisms, excluding some viruses that only have RNA as their genetic material. It was first discovered in the late 1860s by Swiss chemist Frederich Miescher.
However, decades passed and several notable discoveries were made before DNA’s importance was realized and appreciated. Among these discoveries was the unearthing of its helical structure in 1953 by Watson and Crick, using Rosalind Franklin’s clear x-ray patterns.
That said, genetic modification wouldn’t come about until 1973, when American biochemists Stanley N. Cohen and Herbert W. Boyer invented recombinant-DNA technology and subsequently revolutionized the way the scientific community looks at DNA.
Genetic modification, also referred to as DNA Modification or genetic engineering, is a process that involves base modifications or alte rations in the microbial, mammalian, or human genome to achieve targeted goals.
The technique has several applications, including:
- Synthesis of specific proteins and hormones
- Developing targeted therapies for several human diseases
- Crop improvement
DNA modification has allowed researchers to edit the genomic DNA of organisms by using different biotechnology methods, including recombinant DNA, gene targeting, or genome editing.
Learn more below about DNA modification and the consumables and reagents required for cloning experiments and studies.