How Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Works & How We Save You Time & Money
Excedr can procure virtually any type of specialized equipment you might need and accommodate your brand preferences. Contact us or request a lease estimate to learn more about NMR spectrometer leasing and how it can save you time and money.
All equipment brands/models are available
The Benefits of Excedr’s NMR Spectrometer Leasing Program:
- Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
- Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
- Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
- Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
- Conserves working capital, enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
- Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences
*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.
When an atom is exposed to specific magnetic fields, it produces a signal that can be analyzed to determine the various properties of the molecule.
This phenomenon is called nuclear magnetic resonance, and it is used to look at the structural properties of a material’s atomic makeup. As a technique, it is widely used in organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biology, quality control, medical analysis, and non-destructive testing. NMR applications include:
- Atomic-resolution structure determination of large biomolecules
- Determining the residual structures of unfolded proteins and the structures of folding intermediates
- Determining the chemical properties of functional groups in biomolecules
- Studying weak functional interactions between biomolecules
- Detecting hydrogen bonding interactions
- Identifying drug leads and determining the conformations of the compounds bound to enzymes, receptors, and other proteins
- Metabolite analysis
- Chemical identification and conformational analysis of chemicals
- In materials science research of polymer chemistry and physics
An essential factor for NMR is that the resonance frequency of a substance is directly proportional to the magnetic field that is applied to it. Typically, with the strong magnetic fields generated by the superconducting magnets, or coils, used in modern NMR instruments, proton resonance frequency falls within the radio-wave range, anywhere from 100 MHz to 800 MHz, depending on the strength of the magnet.
NMR imaging techniques can produce high-quality images because of this, and NMR spectroscopy is used to study molecular physics by providing information on the structure of organic molecules.
The nuclei produce an electromagnetic signal by placing an atom in a strong magnetic field and then exposing it to an oscillating magnetic field produced by the magnets. The signal made shares qualities with the magnetic field at the nucleus and provides a lot of information about the properties of the atom.
This process results in nuclear spin, where the atom is excited for a specific amount of time before returning to its equilibrium state by a process known as T1 and T2 relaxation. Measuring this relaxation behavior provides more information about the material being tested. There are three main steps involved in the NMR process:
- Alignment (polarization): A constant magnetic field is applied to the nuclear magnetic spins of the molecule.
- Perturbation: The oscillating magnetic field is applied to and perturbs the nuclear spins of the molecules. The oscillating magnetic field is also referred to as a radio-frequency pulse.
- Detection: The detection coil picks up the NMR signal due to the specific precession spin rate of the nuclei in the magnetic field.
NMR Spectroscopy Methods, Techniques, & Cost
Obtaining information about a molecule’s structure can be difficult; however, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a solution.
After the samples are exposed to radio waves, an NMR signal is produced from the excited nuclei. This signal can be used to create unique, high-resolution NMR spectra that can be analyzed to determine the various properties of the material.
Compounds produce highly characteristic fields with unique NMR properties, making NMR spectroscopy invaluable in organic chemistry when identifying monomolecular organic compounds.
In biochemistry, it is used to identify proteins and other complex molecules. The most common types are proton spectroscopy and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy.
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Generally speaking, Fourier-transform spectroscopy describes a spectroscopic technique that uses Fourier transformation to analyze data and convert it into a spectrum. Specifically, Fourier-transform NMR spectroscopy uses electromagnetic radiation from a molecule to obtain a spectrum that can be analyzed.
It is considered a type of magnetic spectroscopy, and the atomic nuclei are excited using radiofrequency pulses. Once placed in a strong magnetic field, the substance is struck by pulses of radio frequencies that excite the atoms in the sample, causing them to spin or gyrate.
This behavior is then picked up by a detector coil and analyzed. The specific spectral data obtained then can be used to identify many properties of the substance. Fourier-transform spectrometry has replaced the previously popular constant wave spectroscopy method because it is much more sensitive and can gather more information about samples.
Fourier-transform NMR spectrometers are considered the standard for NMR spectrometers, as they are considered precise and efficient. They are typically designed to be compact these days, as several manufacturers, such as Bruker, offer benchtop NMR instruments (along with a top-of-the-line selection of NMR systems.)
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Many NMR spectroscopic techniques only plot their data along a simple frequency axis. However, more detail about molecules can be obtained if two axes are used. 2D-NMR spectroscopy takes the spectral data and plots it along two frequency axes.
This is particularly useful for observing molecular structures, incredibly complex molecules that cannot be fully observed using only one dimensional NMR. There are several 2D-NMR spectroscopy methods, including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), J-spectroscopy, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY). 2D-NMR typically consists of four periods:
- Preparation period: Where RF pulses are used to create the magnetization coherence
- Evolution period: The sample is then exposed to no pulses for a set period of time.
- Mixing period: The coherence is then altered to give off a more observable signal.
- Detection period: The data is collected and analyzed.
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy (SSNMRS)
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Though a valuable tool for analyzing atomic structures, NMR has difficulty analyzing solid-state materials. Using a technique known as magic angle spinning (MAS) and dipolar decoupling by RF pulses, SSNMRS can analyze these types of materials. MAS refers to the fact that in SSNMRS, the sample’s nuclei are spun at a high frequency and a specific angle known as the magic angle.
This increases the resolution meaning that the resulting spectral data is more detailed. This data can then be used to identify the molecule, analyze its structure, or look at the kinetics of a chemical system.
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The concept of time is one of those ubiquitous yet highly complex terms that, once you believe you fully understand it, something comes along and changes your whole perspective.
In 2012, Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek did just that when he proposed the existence of time crystals. Typical crystals are defined as atoms or molecules arranged in a regular and repeated pattern to form a solid in space; Wilczek’s time crystals would do the same, only in time.
He proposed that these time crystals, which would be dynamically ever-changing in modes of behavior, would repeat at regular intervals. This spontaneity would, in theory, break the inherent symmetric characteristic of time.
Wilczek’s time crystals have since been proven to be impossible, but the basic principles of having a new type of matter phase continued to be investigated. In 2016, researchers at UC Santa Barbara illustrated that spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry is possible in the quantum system referred to as Floquet-many-body-localized driven system. More simply put, time-crystals should occur in systems naturally out of thermal equilibrium.
This specific version of time-crystals has been expanded on and even tested. Assistant Professor Norman Yao at the University of California, Berkeley showed how time-crystals could exist and wrote how to reproduce his results. Two colleagues at the University of Maryland and Harvard University have reproduced his results.
Due to the complex quantum nature of their work, NMR spectrometers have increasingly been used to study discrete time-crystals further. The excitation of atoms out of thermal equilibrium using NMR spectroscopy may be temporary, but it does provide a great place to observe this new phase of matter.
NMR Spectrometer Leases to Fit Every Need
If you plan on performing analyses of molecular structures at the atomic level, then you’ll need a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, electron microscope, or an X-ray diffractometer.
If that’s the case, consider leasing the equipment instead of purchasing it outright. Doing so can not only provide you with access to the mission-critical equipment you need, but it can also offer benefits that purchasing cannot.
Or, if you already have an NMR instrument and are interested in replacing or updating an old model, we can help with that.
Get in touch or request a lease estimate today, and we can discuss your financing options in further detail.
This off-balance sheet financing structure provides three options at the end of the term. The lessee has the option to return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible which yields additional monetary savings.
If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your device and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments. This also frees up money in your budget rather than tying it down to a fixed asset.
NMR Machine Manufacturers & Models
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Thermo Fisher Scientific:
picoSpin 45 Series II NMR Spectrometer, picoSpin 80 Series II NMR Spectrometer
Pulsar, MQR, MQC+, MQC+23, MQC+5, MQC+F, GeoSpec, GeoSpec GIT ADV, GeoSpec GIT IMG, GeoSpec BASIC, GeoSpec Adv
Advance NEO, NEO NanoBay, Fourier 300 HE, DNP-NMR, Advance IVDr, Hyphenation Systems, SamplePro SPE, SPE-NMR, LC-NMR, LC-SPE-NMR, SampleCase, SampleXpress, SampleXpress Lite, Lab2NMR, Aeon 1GHz, Ascend, Acend Aeon
Oracle, SMART Trac II
Anasazi Instruments Inc.:
Aspect Ai-60, SpinPlus CX-20
One Resonance Sensor:
MobiLab BLS-Bottle Liquid Scanner
Vista Clara Inc:
Dart, Javelin, Javelin Wireline, GMR Surface, Discus, Dart, Corona Core
SpinMaster FFC2000 1T C/DC, SMARtracer, HTS-110, High Field NMR Relaxometry, PC-NMR
JNM-ECZR series, JNM-ECZS series
MAGMODULE II, MAGSTATION II, MAGSTATION Lite
Spinsolve Benchtop, Spinsolve 43, Spinsolve 60, spinsolve 80, Spinsolve ULTRA, Spinsolve Education, Kea2
NMReady-60e, NMReady-60PRO, NMReady-flow
Molecular Specialties, Inc.:
SPINMATER-FFC 2000 1T, SMARtracer Bench-Top FFC
Infinity XE 5011, Infinity XE 5021, Infinity XE 5031, Infinity XE 5041
PS-15 Pulsed System, CW NMR/ESR SPectrometer, Combination cw/Pulsed NMR & ESR System