CRISPR is a group of DNA sequences found in the genome. It has proven an incredibly powerful tool scientists can use to edit DNA sequences and modify gene function.
To better understand this tool, we must first get familiar with gene editing, or genome editing. Gene editing is the process of changing an organism’s genetic code or genome. It has a rich history of yielding and developing adjunct techniques in search of answers to life-threatening human diseases.
There are several programmable, sequence-specific endonucleases have been introduced to edit DNA and interrogate genetic elements that cause variations or diseases in humans, including Cas9, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs).
However, the most recent and compelling genome editing tool is considered to be CRISPR-Cas9.
CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” while Cas9 stands for the associated protein, 9. The system’s uniqueness is a sensation in scientific communities because it presents researchers with the ability to cut a specific piece of DNA, alter it in the desired way, and modify the gene function.
Today, CRISPR-Cas9 is used in biology and biotechnology, medicinal areas, therapeutic purposes, and food and agriculture.