How Total Organic Carbon Analysis Works & How We Save You Time & Money
Excedr’s lease program can accommodate your lab’s equipment needs and brand/model preferences. Get in touch with us today and see how leasing can save you time and money on your TOC analyzer and instrumentation.
All equipment brands/models are available
The Advantages of Excedr’s TOC Analyzer Leasing Program:
- Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
- Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
- Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
- Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
- Conserves working capital, enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
- Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences
*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.
Since the Clean Water Act was passed in 1972, wastewater treatment processes have become increasingly strict, and for good reason.
Stringent requirements for water quality ultimately benefit manufacturers, consumers and the environment. However, maintaining clean water is an ongoing challenge as increasing populations and growing industries use more water and produce more wastewater. It makes improving the efficiency of removing byproducts and pollutants to meet established environmental regulatory limits that much more important and necessary.
Testing water purity, and maintaining water quality in general, is not only important for clean drinking water, but it also plays a big role in the pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and power industries’ manufacturing processes. If bacteria and other unintended organic compounds are present in the water, they can render the water useless or indicate that there is an issue with the filtration or storage system.
When ignored, this tainted water can be detrimental to whatever process it is a part of, even leading to breaks in various industrial equipment. This makes monitoring various impurities in water essential to commercial industries as well as public ones.
Total organic carbon (TOC) refers to the amount of carbon that is present in an organic compound. Measuring how much organic carbon is present in a substance also quantifies the amount of organic matter that is present. Though TOC is most often related to water analysis and water treatment, it can also refer to the amount of carbon present in soil and other geological formations. Simply put, TOC is used to track the change—or lack of change—of organic content within a sample.
While TOC is a fairly ubiquitous term for carbon analysis, there are more specific terms that are used depending on the type of carbon being measured, including:
- Total Carbon (TC): The total of all carbon present in a sample.
- Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC): Sometimes referred to as just inorganic carbon (IC), carbonate, bicarbonate, and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2).
- Elemental Carbon (EC): Depending on the method used, EC can be a subcategory of TIC or TOC. It is also known as black carbon depending on the measurement method used.
- Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC): Denotes the amount of organic carbon that remains after an acidified sample is purged with gas.
- Purgeable (volatile) Organic Compound (VOC): Refers to the amount of organic carbon that is removed from a neutral or acidic sample with an inert gas.
- Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC): Indicates the amount of carbon that is in a sample after it is filtered.
- Suspended Organic Carbon: Tracks the number of carbon particles that are too large to pass through a filter. This is also known as particulate organic carbon (POC).
As you can see, TOC analysis is performed in a variety of ways, some of which we will cover below.
TOC Analyzer Processes & Applications
Total organic carbon analyzers are instruments that measure TOC concentration in a sample. Almost all of them track CO2 formation both when organic carbon is oxidized and when inorganic carbon is acidified.
The specifics of the oxidation and acidification will vary depending on the environment of the sample, the concentration of TOC, and the testing parameters. Oxidation can be achieved through multiple methods. Some examples include Pt-catalyzed combustion and UV/persulfate oxidation.
After oxidation has occurred, a detector, either a conductivity cell or a non-dispersive infrared cell, then measures the amount of CO2 that has formed. Detecting organic carbon through acidification occurs by first flushing the inorganic carbon out of the sample with either helium or nitrogen and then measuring the remaining organic carbons.
TOC analysers can be organized into one of two types: combustion analyzers and chemical oxidation analyzers.
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TOC combustion analysis is done after half of the sample is put into a chamber where it is acidified and half is put into a combustion chamber. In the acidified solution, a detector can measure organic carbons due to a chemical reaction that converts all of the inorganic carbon into CO2.
In the combustion chamber, the temperature is raised to 600-700 °C and all of the carbon in the sample reacts with the ambient oxygen to form CO2. After it is cooled, a detector measures the organic carbon.
High-temperature combustion (HTC) total organic carbon analyzers are used to accurately measure carbon content in aqueous matrices down to the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) level. The design allows for the pairing of an autosampler and an injection system—it also allows increases ease of use for the end-user. By closing off the injection process to the atmosphere, precision is improved and the chances of contamination are reduced.
Another combustion technique used to measure TOC includes a method originally developed by Shimadzu called the 680°C combustion catalytic oxidation method, performed using their TOC-L Series analyzers. This method achieves total combustion of samples by heating them to 680° C in an oxygen rich environment inside of combustion tubes filled with a platinum catalyst. Because of the principles of oxidation, sample pre-treatment and post-treatment is not necessary.
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IChemical oxidation of carbon in TOC analysis includes a few different approaches:
- Photo-oxidation (ultraviolet light): Photo-oxidation using ultraviolet light (UV) is a reliable, low maintenance method of analyzing TOC in ultra-pure waters. The oxidizing agent, UV, is sufficient enough to oxidize the sample.
- Ultraviolet/persulfate oxidation: UV/persulfate oxidation also relies on UV as an oxidizer, however, persulfate or a persulfate compound is also added to increase the oxidation power of the reaction. It is, like photo-oxidation, a sensitive and reliable method that can be used in a wide range of applications. One downside to this method is that inaccuracies can be created due to the addition of foreign substances into the analyte.
- Thermochemical persulfate oxidation: Thermochemical persulfate oxidation is also known as heated persulfate, and it relies on the same reactions occuring in UV/persulfate oxidation, except that this method uses heat to magnify the power of the oxidizing agent.
Chemical oxidation is often used in combination with NDIR detectors, which can measure TOC from hundreds of ppm to single digit ppb.
Produced Water Treatment
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Oil has been the most influential natural resource since the 19th century and it continues to be heavily relied upon by all nations around the world. Technologies that use oil have advanced, and, likewise, our ability to harvest and refine it has also improved drastically.
A byproduct of industrial oil refinement is 2.5 billion gallons of produced water every day. This produced water has been labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency as being too contaminated to be used for household or commercial use. There are methods for treating this water and decontaminating it, however, they are either prohibitively expensive, not wholly effective, or are too energy-intensive.
Researchers at Purdue University have developed a relatively inexpensive method to remove almost all traces of oil from produced water. The method employs using heated, activated charcoal foam to remove the oil from the water. The process is able to achieve a TOC of 7.5 milligrams per liter, which, per the EPA standards, means it is clean water. Effective, inexpensive, and requiring little energy, this method can save billions of gallons of water from becoming useless.
Process Water Treatment
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Not to be confused with produced water, process water refers to the water used in a number of ways across industrial manufacturing and processes, as well as power generation and drug manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. It is recommended that engineers and scientists measure TOC in process water. Doing so helps organizations understand whether the water they are using is pure enough for their processes.
This is important because all water, no matter how pure, contains some carbon materials. Many of these materials are introduced into the water from the water source, or from materials and systems during purification and production. The presence of these materials in the water—in this case, organic or inorganic carbon—can suggest a failure in filtration, storage or other systems/components. If left unfiltered, these compounds can create difficult and costly challenges, from damaging expensive industrial system to negatively impacting product quality and threatening profitability.
Detecting the presence of these organic contaminants and measuring their total concentration can help not only help protect industries, but it can also help protect consumers and the environment.
We Offer Total Organic Carbon Instrument Leases to Fit Every Need
Whatever your TOC measurement needs, we can help. We offer both leases and sale-leasebacks on TOC analyzers, CO² incubators, and more. Call us at (510) 982-6552 or fill out our contact form online and we can discuss in further detail your exact needs. Additionally, our comprehensive service plans mean instrument calibration and maintenance are covered.
This off-balance sheet financing structure provides three options at the end of the term. The lessee has the option to return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible which yields additional monetary savings.
If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your device and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments. This also frees up money in your budget rather than tying it down to a fixed asset.
TOC Machine Manufacturers & Models on the Market
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TOC-L Series, TOC-VW, TOC-VWS, TOC-VWP,, TOC-4200, TNPC-4100/4110C, TNM-L TN
A-1000XP, ANATEL A1000, , PAT700 TOC Single Stream, PAT700 Dual Stream, ANATEL PAT700, QbD1200,
7000RMS Microbial Detection Analyzer, 6000TOCi On-line, 4000TOCe, 450TOC
multi N/C Series, multi X 2500, multi EA 4000, multi N/C pharma Series
1080TOC, Aurora 1030D, 1088 Rotary, Aurora 1030W, 1030S Solids, 9210p Online
Suez Water Technologies:
Sievers M9, Sievers M5310 C, Sievers 500, Sievers InnovOx, Sievers 860 Lab, Sievers CheckPoint
Mitsubishi Chemical Analytech:
Fusion, Torch Combustion TN Analyzer, Lotix Combustion
QBD1200 Laboratory, BioTector B3500 Series, BioTector B3500ul, BioTector B3500c, BioTector B3500dw, BioTector B3500e, BioTector B7000i, BioTector B7000, BioTector B7000i Dairy
TOC1500HP, TOC 1000, CG15L
Vario TOC cube, enviro TOC, soli TOC cube, acquray Series
Trace Elemental Instruments:
Formacs SERIES, Primacs Series