Thermal Analyzer:

Thermal Analyzer

How Thermal Analysis Works & the Benefits of Leasing a Thermal Analyzer

Excedr can source all equipment types and can accommodate any model preferences your lab might have. Request a quote today and see how a lease can discount your thermal analyzer price.

All equipment brands/models are available

The Advantages of Excedr’s Thermal Analyzer Leasing Program:

  • Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
  • Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
  • Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
  • Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
  • Conserves working capital,  enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
  • Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences

*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.

In material sciences, heat is used in conjunction with other measurement techniques to determine the different properties of samples. The group of techniques that performs these measurements are referred to as thermal analyzers. 

Thermal analysis can also be described as the measurement of heat transfer through structured mediums. Each subcategory of an analyzer measures different properties of a sample as its temperature is either heated or cooled. The temperature of the environment that the sample is within is controlled; how that temperature is controlled varies based on the device’s make and model. 

A simple control method is increasing or decreasing the temperature at a constant rate, referred to as linear heating/cooling. The analysis is done by recording multiple measurements of the same material at different temperatures, also known as a stepwise isothermal measurement. 

Having the rate of change in temperature oscillate or having the heating or cooling rate change in response to alteration in the sample would be two examples of other, more complicated, control techniques. These can also be referred to as modulated temperature thermal analysis and sample controlled thermal analysis, respectively. 

Thermal analyzers are used in material science, pharmaceutical processes, polymer analysis, medical research, and quality assurance. Their ability to ascertain the physical qualities of a material in relation to changes in temperature makes them indispensable to these fields.

The analysis can also look at a dielectric material’s electrical discharge, a stressed sample’s mechanical relaxation, or any light or sound emissions, all in relation to changes in temperature.

Additionally, many of the thermal analysis methods covered below can be coupled with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, or microscopy in order to provide more accurate results.

Thermal Analyzer Methods & Benefits

Various analytical instruments and methods are used to monitor such thermal endothermic and exothermic processes as melting, boiling, sublimation, phase transition, crystallization, oxidation, desolvation, and more. 

Furthermore, many TA instruments now offer automation features which help streamline workflows and allow for researchers to focus on other priorities while analyses are performed.

Thermogravimetric (TGA)
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Conducted by thermogravimetric analyzers, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) continuously measures the mass of a sample’s temperature changes over time. The result of such an analysis is a plot of mass as a function of either time or temperature. These devices consist of a lab balance with the desired sample on it contained within a temperature-controlled furnace. These analyzers are also known as thermobalances.

They are used in determining materials thermal stability, oxidation, and combustion mass losses, in addition to the thermal decomposition present in pyrolysis and computation of materials.

Identifying gases released directly from a sample during thermal treatment cannot happen without coupling a spectroscopic method like Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to a TG analyzer. This integration, referred to as TG-FTIR, pairs the quantification capabilities of TG with the identification abilities of FTIR spectroscopy.

 

Thermomechanical (TMA)
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Observing dimensional changes in materials as a function of temperature or time is done using a thermomechanical analyzer. Thermomechanical analysis is considered a sub-discipline of thermomechanometry.

The sample is placed inside a furnace and a force generator is attached to it. The generator is used to deform the sample either by compression, tension, flexure, or torsion, and those changes are measured and recorded. The constant application of force or non-oscillating stress deforms the sample over time.

Expansion/compression, penetration, or tension probes are used depending on what type of measurement is needed.

 

Dielectric Thermal (DETA)
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A dielectric thermal analyzer, or more simply put a dielectric analyzer (DEA), measures a material’s capacitance, conductance, and phase change by applying an oscillating electrical field to it and observing it as a function of time and temperature.

DETAs are also used to observe the curing behavior of thermosetting resin systems, composite materials, and other polymers. This is achieved by placing two electrodes on the material and applying a sinusoidal voltage to one of them. The response measured from the second electrode is recorded and is used to determine other material properties.

 

Differential Thermal (DTA)
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A thermoanalytical technique that measures the temperature of a substance as it is heated or cooled at a specific rate. Simultaneously, a known reference inert material undergoes an identical thermal cycle and its temperature is also recorded.

The difference between the two temperatures is plotted against either time or temperature and this plot then is used to determine other properties of the substance. This curve can then be used to plot exothermic and/or endothermic changes in the substance to identify transformation temperatures or when it melts, sublimates, and crystalizes.

Differential thermal analyzers’ ability to identify these transition points makes it extremely useful for material identification. DTA is found in pharmaceutical, mineralogical, and environmental fields.

Furthermore, it can be coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) to characterize multiple thermal properties of a sample in a single experiment. Fundamentally, TG involved in TG-DTA is very similar to the standard thermogravimetric analysis in that it can provide measurements concerning temperatures changes as a result of decomposition, reduction, or oxidation.

 

Dynamic Mechanical (DMA/DMTA)
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Similar to thermomechanical analyzers, dynamic mechanical analyzers look at a material’s dimensional changes as a function of time, temperature, and frequency of stress. As the frequency of the strain that is applied varies, the resulting stress on the material is measured. This sinusoidal force is applied by a probe that deforms the material, and the relationship between the force applied and the deformation is then measured.

When testing polymer materials, different deformation techniques are used depending on the force that needs to be measured. Tension, compression, dual cantilever bending, three-point bending, and shear modes are examples of a few techniques.

 

Dilatometry (DIL)
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Dilatometry is the technique used to measure dimensional changes in a sample’s volume as changes in temperature occur. A simple and well-known dilatometer is a mercury-in-glass thermometer. As the mercury heats up, its volume expands at a measurably consistent rate. DILs can be subdivided into several types:

  • Capacitance: The sample is placed between two parallel plates, one stationary and one movable. As the sample’s temperature changes and its length changes, it will move one plate, changing the gap between them.
  • Connecting Rod (Push Rod): The pushrod touches the sample which is placed inside a furnace, and the thermal expansion is then measured by a strain gauge which charts the change in shape.
  • High Resolution (HR) Laser: Dimensional variations that are a result of temperature changes are quantified using light interference. The most accurate method of laser dilatometer is the Michelson Interferometer type Laser Dilatometer.
  • Optical: Uses high-resolution cameras to capture images of the material as it undergoes dimensional changes, achieving non-contact measurements.
 

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
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Known as both a calorimetric and thermal analysis technique, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to provide test data for a wide range of materials. This includes polymers, rubber, petroleum, chemicals, plastics, adhesives, composites, coatings, organic materials, pharmaceuticals, and much more.

DSC devices measure how change’s in a material’s temperature alter its heat capacity. It is used to evaluate material properties such as glass transition temperature, melting, crystallization, specific heat capacity, thermal stability, and oxidation behavior, among others.

Additionally, DSC can be coupled with TG (TGA-DSC) in order to perform microplastic characterization.

 

Simultaneous (STA)
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Simultaneous thermal analysis—or STA—is a combination of DSC and TG methods. By coupling thermogravimetric effects with the recording of a DSC heat flow signal, both measuring methods can be compared. This excludes the influence changed sample atmospheres can have on the reaction equilibrium, which can often occur with individual measurements.

Simultaneous thermal analyzers are able to make up for the uncertainties that TG or DSC measurements can create due to such inaccuracies as sample inhomogeneities, sample geometry, and temperature fluctuations.

Combining these two methods ultimately results in an almost complete sample characterization, especially for complex reactions. The complimentary pairing allows researchers to observe and understand differentiation between endothermic and exothermic events, which have no associated weight change and those that do involve weight change.

 

Thermal Analysis in Space
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Thermal analysis’ use of equilibrium thermodynamics, irreversible thermodynamics, and kinetics concepts allow it to be an effective tool that is used in both academic and professional fields. Material science, geology, quality assurance, heat transfer, and the pharmaceutical industry are just some examples.

Though they are used as independent devices, thermal analyzers can also be combined with other measurement and testing devices to provide a more comprehensive testing system. Their base range of uses and ability to couple with other devices means that thermal analyzers are extremely prevalent in many applications. In fact, this analysis method is now being used in interstellar research.

Putting materials into space poses interesting problems due to the lack of an atmosphere. Additionally, reentry into the earth’s atmosphere poses unique issues when materials are exposed to extreme temperatures. NASA has had to perform extensive thermal analysis on its Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) specifically to avoid any damage to the EEV for the Mars Sample Return mission. It would be an absolute tragedy if those samples returning to Earth ended up burning upon reentry.

 

We Offer Thermogravimetric System Leases to Fit Every Need

If your lab performs thermal analysis—or is considering it—leasing a thermal analyzer (or even a calorimeter, for that matter) can save you both time and money. We offer comprehensive leasing options as well as sale leasebacks. Call us at +1(510) 982-6552 or fill out our contact form online to learn more about Excedr’s lease program and receive an estimate.

Operating Lease

This off-balance sheet financing structure provides three options at the end of the term. The lessee has the option to return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible which yields additional monetary savings.

Sale-Leaseback

If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your device and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale-leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments. This also frees up money in your budget rather than tying it down to a fixed asset. 


DTA Manufacturers & Models on the Market
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LECO:
TGA801 Thermogravimetric Analyzer, TGA801 Dual Furnace Package

Instrument Specialists Incorporated:
STA-Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer, STA Series, STA 650, STA 1200, STA 1500, TMA-Thermomechanical Analyzer, TMA 800, DTA-Differential Thermal Analyzer, DTA TGA 1000, TGA 1500

Shimadzu:
DTG-60 series, DTG-60, DTG-60H, DTG-60A, DTG-60AH, TMA-60 Series, TMA-60, TMA-60H, TGA-50 series, TGA-50, TGA-50H, TGA-51 series, TGA-51, TGA-51H, DTA-50

Mettler Toledo:
TGA 2 small furnace (SF), TGA 2 large furnace (LF), TGA/DSC 3+ high temperature furnace (HT), TMA/SDTA 2+ LF/1100, TMA/SDTA 2+ HT/1600, TMA/SDTA 2+ IC/600, TMA/SDTA 2+ LN/600, DMA/SDTA 1+, DMA 1, TGA/DSC 3+ small furnace (SF), TGA/DSC 3+ large furnace (LF)

TA Instruments:
DMA 850, DMA 3200 High Force DMA, RSA-G2, DynTHERM TGA Models, TGA 55, TGA 550, TGA 5500, HP-TGA 75, HP-TGA 750, ODP 868, DIL 806, DIL 805A/D/T, DIL 805l, DIL 805A, DIL 805A/D, DIL 820 Series, DIL 821, DIL 822, DIL 821HT, DIL 822HT, DIL 830 Series, DIL 803, DIL 803L, DIL 802, DIL 802L, DIL 801, DIL 801L, DIL 831, DIL 832, SDT 650

Hitachi:
STA7200, STA7200RV, STA300, TMA7100, TMA7300, DMA7100, NEXTA STA, STA 200, STA 200RV, STA 7300 High Temperature

Perkin Elmer:
TGA 8000, TMA 4000 Lab System, TGA 4000 System, DMA 8000, Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer, STA 6000, STA 8000

Netzsch:
DMA 242 Artemis, EPLEXOR 25 N, DMA EPLEXOR 500 N,, DMA 242 E Artemis, TG 209 F1 Nevio, TG 209 F3 Nevio, TG 209 F1 Libra, TG 209 F3 Tarus, TMA 402 F1/F3 Hyperion, DEA 288 Ionic

Setram Instruments KEP Technologies:
THEMYS TGA, THEMYS STA, THEMYS STA DTA, SETSYS Evolution TMA, SETSYS Evolution DTA/DSC, SETSYS Evolution TGA-DTA/DSC, LABSYS EVO TGA, LABSYS EVO STA, THEMYS TGA/STA-EGA, LABSYS EVO TGA/STA-EGA, TAG, SETSYS Evolution TGA/STA-EGA, SETSYS Evolution TMA, 96 Line TMA, SETSYS Evolution TGA/STA-EGA

Linsei:
STA PT 1000, STA PT 1600, STA MSB PT 1, L81-I STA, STA HP ½ High Pressure, STA HP 3, TGA PT 1000, TGA Pt 1600, TGA MSB PT 1, TMA PT 1000, TMA PT 1600, DTA PT 1600, DIL L75 PT Vertical, DIL L74 Optical Dilatometer, DIL L75 PT Horizontal, DIL L75 PT Quattro, , DIL L75 Laser, DTA PT 1600, TGA PT 1600, DIL L76 PT, DIL L74 HM, DIL L78 QDT/RITA, DIL L75 High Pressure

And more!

 


Operating Capital Benefits

Operating Capital Benefits

Excedr's operating lease structure allows you to keep your business credit line open for expansions, staffing, and other operational expenses. Additionally, it strengthens the cash flow of your business and keeps cash reserves free for business development opportunities.

Effects on Credit

Effects on Credit

Leasing / renting provides you with non-dilutive financing and does not hinder your future borrowing ability. You're able to acquire the equipment you need without the baggage associated with traditional financing.

Used Equipment

Used Equipment

Unlike traditional financing and leasing companies, the Excedr program can accommodate refurbished/reconditioned equipment in addition to demo units. If you are looking for additional cost-savings, we recommend considering this option.

Speed of Approval

Speed of Approval

Excedr's program allows you to respond quickly as your need for equipment and technology arises. You can be approved with minimal documentation and have the equipment you need in operation and generating revenue for your business quickly.