How Element Analyzers Work & How Leasing Benefits Your Lab
Despite the variety of instrumentation available, Excedr’s equipment financing program can procure all instrument types and accommodate any brand preferences you may have. Read on to learn how elemental analysis works and how leasing an elemental analyzer can save you time and money.
All equipment brands/models are available
The Advantages of Excedr’s Element Analyzer Leasing Program:
- Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
- Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
- Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
- Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
- Conserves working capital, enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
- Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences
*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.
The process of observing a material to determine its elemental or isotopic composition is called elemental analysis (EA).
It falls within the scope of analytical chemistry, and is specific to the elements a researcher is looking for in a sample. For example, when it comes to organic chemistry, EA almost always refers to CHNS or CHNS/O analysis. That is, analysis of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur. In the case of “O”, the analysis includes oxygen.
The substance that is being observed, identified, and measured is referred to as an analyte. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in EA to determine the composition of a sample. It represents an important step in a variety of analytical workflows many laboratories use today.
Elemental analyzers refer to the devices that perform these analyses. They are designed to find elemental compositions of unknown substances by taking the material—whether it is organic or inorganic material—and converting it into simpler, known compounds. An example of this method of characterization is analyzing an organic compound for the presence of carbon and hydrogen. The unknown organic compound is altered through combustion and the resulting particles are examined and weighted to determine their composition by mass.
Though common, combustion is not the only method used to determine a material’s elemental makeup. Chemicals and radiation are two other methods that are well known in the quantitative and qualitative determination of an element. Elemental analyzers can be organized by which type of element is being analyzed or by how much of a specific element is in a substance. EA is used in a variety of application fields:
- Organic Chemistry & Pharmaceuticals: quality control (QC) analysis of chemicals, halogen-compounds, and more.
- Petrochemistry & Energy: characterization of refined fuels, biofuels, biomass fuel, gasoline, and more.
- Environmental: elemental content determination of compost, water, and particulate matter
- Material Characterization: quality assessment (QA) of polymers, rubbers, plastics, and more.
- Food Quality: analysis of protein content for compliance with labeling and other food/feed manufacturing requirements.
Element Analysis Techniques, Systems, & Consumables
Analyzing the full range of elements present in a sample originally required laboratories to invest in multiple elemental analyzers. This was due to the fact that carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen analysis conventionally could not be carried out within one integrated instrument.
However, thanks to manufacturers’ efforts, present day devices are capable of detecting and measuring numerous elements in a singular method as well as combinations of many elements.
With integrated and accurate analytical instruments now more readily available, sample preparation and data acquisition time has been reduced. Automation has played a vital role as well, providing increased efficiency through the use of autosamplers and other automated features. Additionally, new bench-top configurations have saved precious lab space.
Organic Elemental Analysis (OEA)
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High-quality organic elemental analysis requires an analyzer that provides precision and cost-effectiveness for quantification of organic elements such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur (CHNS), as well as oxygen (CHNS/O).
CHNS/O or CHNS analysis can provide a quick and inexpensive method to find sample purity and, in combination with technologies such as mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), can be used for the characterization of those various compounds.
Other analysis examples include simply carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN). Single compound analyzers are available as well, such as nitrogen analyzers.
Knowing which elements you’re going to analyze and which devices available on the market are capable of doing what is an important step in procuring inorganic and organic elemental analyzers.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
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This process involves the quantitative analysis of chemical elements of material using spectroanalytical methods. AAS observes how optical radiation, or light, interacts with an analyzed sample. This technique is effective because free atoms absorb light at specific frequencies or wavelengths depending on their element. Before analysis can occur, the medium must first be atomized using the spectrometer. The most common methods for this are flame and electrothermal atomizers.
- Flame: The liquid or dissolved material is drawn into a pneumatic analytical nebulizer which converts the material from a liquid into a very fine mist. The aerosolized sample is then combined with flammable gases and introduced into a flame. The resulting substance is then analyzed for its elemental properties.
- Electrothermal: Analyte atomization is achieved by passing an electrical current through a device to heat it up to a specific temperature. This apparatus is called an electrothermal atomizer. Before a sample is aerosolized it is dried at low temperature and then is put into a graphite furnace to undergo chemical decomposition due to heat, or pyrolysis. The vaporized material can then be analyzed to determine the original substances elemental properties.
Sodium Fusion Test
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Also known as Lassaigne’s test, this method looks for the presence of halogen, nitrogen, or sulfur in an organic compound. Consisting of placing the substance into a container with sodium in it and applying heat to it until the two different substances fuse together, the resulting intermixed material is then plunged into pure water and the existence of foreign substances can be detected.
If the resulting mixture produced sodium halide, sodium cyanide, ferric ferrocyanide, sodium sulfide, or sodium thiocyanate the tested sample can be said to have nitrogen, sulfur, or halogen.
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A chemical method for quantitative discernment of elemental sulfur, halogen, chlorine, and nitrogen in a sample. This method involves combustion analysis to determine what elements are in a substance. Conducted in an Erlenmeyer flask, the material is wrapped in attached to a stopper. Some absorption solution is poured into the container and it is filled with oxygen, the wrapped material is lit and the stopper is used to quickly seal the flask.
The resulting solvent can then be tested chemically to establish the presence of other elements. This process is also known as Schöniger flask test or the oxygen flask method.
X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
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EA can be performed using X-ray fluorescence to determine the elemental composition of solid substances. A beam of x-rays strikes the surface of the sample and a core electron is then ejected from the atom that absorbed the x-ray photon. When an outer electron falls into the hole created by the ejected electron, it gives off energy in the form of light.
This light is called fluorescence and a characteristic pattern exists for each element. Historically, different types of x-ray fluorescence lines are observed and labeled as such:
- K radiation: This type of radiation is produced when the electron falls into a hole in the n=1 level
- L radiation: L radiation is produced when the electron falls into a hole in the n=2 level.
- M radiation: M radiation is produced when the electron falls into a hole in n=3. This pattern repeats, going from M to N to O and so on for each electron shell.
Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
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Some elemental analyzers utilize thermal conductivity detectors to determine the properties of an analyte. Most commonly seen in gas chromatography, these universal, nondestructive, concentration-sensitive detectors respond to the difference in thermal conductivity of the carrier gas and the carrier gas containing the sample. This principle of detection is based on the fact that the analytes will typically have a lower thermal conductivity than the carrier gas mixture.
The final result produces a series of peaks for each analyte, which is correlated with the absolute quantity of the element via calibrations. The calibrations relate variations in the integrated detector signal with absolute element content for samples of known weight and composition.
Consumables used in Elemental Analysis
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EA requires a number of consumables, from aluminum capsules, chemical reagents and reagent kits, to flat tin disks and combustion, scrubber, or reduction tubes. Combustion Calibration Standards are also widely used to ensure your EA device is calibrated correctly.
There are several manufacturers that produce high-quality consumables for all your elemental analysis needs, including EA consumables, PerkinElmer, and OEA Labs Ltd.
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Element Analysis has been a useful scientific technique for a long time. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, an 18th-century French chemist, is considered the father of quantitative elemental analysis. Before Lavoisier chemistry was explained with qualitative observations like the idea that phlogiston, a fire quality, was what left a material once it was burned which is why there is less of it.
Through a series of carefully measured experiments, Lavoisier proved that when combusted chemicals combine with their surroundings to form new mixtures of solids, gasses or liquids. Specifically, he was able to deduce that oxygen, when combined with normal air would produce water, concluding that water was actually a composite of hydrogen and oxygen. He would be a primary figure in the chemical revolution championing the study of chemistry through quantitative means.
Today, EA is being used in biomedical, environmental, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical fields. More recently it has found use beyond normal STEM sciences. Anthropologists, archeologists, and general historians are now utilizing these techniques to better understand the history of humans around the world.
The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, one of the largest museums in the world, has an entire lab dedicated to these methods of study. In 2015, an article was published about the discovery of a black rock found in the Scladina Caves in Belgium linked to Neanderthal culture. Using the Field Museum’s EA labs the team discovered that the rocks must have been transported there from much further away by Neanderthals for culturally significant reasons.
We Offer CHN, CHNS, and CHNS/O Analyzer Leases
Regardless of whether your analytical needs require elemental analysis, TOC analysis, mass spectrometry, or gas chromatography, we have you covered. From Bruker to PerkinElmer, we offer a wide range of elemental analyzers and analytical instruments.
Laboratories in numerous industries benefit from our leasing program in a number of ways. One of the most common is saving money by keeping upfront costs minimal. Read through just a few of our lease structure’s features below.
This off-balance sheet financing structure provides three options at the end of the term. The lessee has the option to return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible which yields additional monetary savings.
If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your device and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments. This also frees up money in your budget rather than tying it down to a fixed asset.
Organic Element Analysis Manufacturers & Models on the Market
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Eltra Elemental Analyzer:
CHS Analyzers, ELEMENTRAC CS-i, CS-2000, CS-580, CS-580A, CHS-580, CHS-580A, CW-800, CW-800M, SurfaceC-800, ONH Analyzers, ELEMENTRAC ON-p, ELEMENTRAC OH-p, ELEMENTRAC ONH-p, H-500, PerkinElmer, 2400 CHNS/O Sreies II System, N2410650, FIMS 100, B0509550, FIMS 400, B509560
FlashSmart, FlashSmart CHNS/O, FlashSmart N/PROTEIN, FlashSmart NC SOIL, FlashSmart CHN, FlashSmart CHNS, FlashSmart CHN/O, FlashSmart N ORG, FlashSmart NC ORG, FlashSmart NCS, FlashSmart N LUBRICANT, FlashSmart V CHN/O (+ MVC), FlashSmart V CHNS/O (+ MVC), FlashSmart V CHN/CHN (+ MVC), FlashSmart V CHNS/CHNS (+ MVC), FlashSmart N/PROTEIN, EA IsoLink IRMS System
S2 POLAR, S2 POLAR Refinery Analyzer, S2 POLAR Oil Analyzer, S2 POLAR Refinery and Oil Analyzer, S6 JAGUAR, S6 JAGUAR EasyLoad, S6 JAGUAR EasyLoad ONLINE, S6 JAGUAR 15 Position XY changer, S6 JAGUAR Manual, S8 TIGER, S8 TIGER Series 2, S8 TIGER 1 kW, S8 TIGER 3 kW, S8 TIGER 4 kW, S2 PUMA, S2 PUMA Single, S2 PUMA XY Autochange, S2 PUMA Carousel, S2 PUMA Automation, S8 LION, G4 ICARUS Series 2, G4 PHOENIX DH, G8GALILEO ON/H, Q2 ION, Q4 TASMAN, Q8 MAGELLAN, Q4 MOBILE, M4 TORNADO PLUS, S4 T-STAR, M4 TORNADO AMICS, M1 MISTRAL, ARTAX, S2 PICOFOX, ELIO, CRONO, EOS 500, S1 TITAN, S1 TITAN 800, S1 TITAN 600, S1 TITAN 500, S1 TITAN 300, S1 TITAN 200, TRACER 5 series, TRACER 5i, TRACER 5g, CTX, CTX 800, CTX 600, CTX 500S, CTX 500, CTX 300
Ametek Arizona Instruments:
Jerome J505, Jerome J605, Jerome J405, Jerome 631-X, Jerome 431-X, Jerome 651, Jerome 451
844 Series, 744 Series, 836 Series, 736 Series, RHEN602, 628 Series,, TruSpec Micro CHNS, 928 Series, 828 Series, FP828, 832 Series
Petra 4294, Petra MAX, Sindie +Pb, Sindie 7039, Sindie Online, Sindie On-The-Go, Clora, Clora 2XP, Sindie +Cl, Clora Online, HD Prime, Petra MAX, Sindie +Cl, Cadence, HD Mobile, HD Rocksand, Phoebe, Signall
200 Series, 240FS AA, 280FS AA, 240 AA, 240Z AA, 280Z AA, 55B AA, AA Duo, 5110 ICP-OES Instrument, 4210 MP-AES, 4200 MP-AES, 4100 MP-AES, CARY ECLIPSE
mercur, mercur plus, mercur DUO, mercur DUO plus, mercur AA, mercur AA plus, multiEA series, multi EA 5000, compEAct, compEAct N, compEAct S, compEAct SMPO, PlasmaQuant PA 900, PlasmaQuant PQ 900 Elite, Absorbable Organic Halogens/Total Organic Halogens/Extractable Organic halogens (AOX/TOX/EOX), multi X, multi X 2500
Zetium, Axios FAST, CNA range, CNA Nickel, CNA3 cross-belt analyzer, CNA Pentos Cement, Epsilon 1, 2830 ZT, Epsilon Xflow, Epsilon 4
Mitsubishi Chemical Analytech:
TOX-300, TOC-310V, AOX-200, NSX-2100
Ultima Expert – ICP-OES, Ultima Expert LT, GD-Profiler 2, Plasma Profiling, EMIA Series, EMIA-Pro, EMIA-Expert, EMIA-20P, EMIA-21P, EMIA-22P, EMIA-20E, EMIA-21E, EMIA-22E, EMIA-V2, EMIA-8100, EMGA-920, EMGA-820AC, EMGA-820M, EMGA-921, EMGA-821AC, EMGA-821M, EMGA-930, EMGA-830AC, EMGA-830M, MESA-50, MESA-50K, SLFA-60/6000 Series, SLFA-60, SLFA-6100, SLFA-6800, XPLORER-TX/TS, XPLORER-NS, MESA-7220
Trace Elemental Instruments:
XPLORER TN/TS, XPLORER TX/TS, XPLORER, XPERT, XPLORER TS, XPLORER TN Spectro, ARCOS, SPECTROBLUE, GENESIS, XEPOS, MIDEX Precious Metals, MIDEX MID05, MIDEX, MIDEX SD, MIDEX LD, SEPCTROSCOUT, xSORT, xSORT Alloy, xSORT AlloyPlus, xSORT NonAlloy
Gerhardt Analytical Systems:
DUMATHERM N Pro, DT N Pro, DUMATHERM CN, DT CN
SuperC AMF, 2010L, 2020L, 9600L, 7505 Portable Process Analyzer, 7510 Process Analyzer, 8510 Process Analyzer, 9730 Process Analyzer
5E Series, 5E-CHN2200, 5E-CH2200, 5E-TCN2200, 5E-TCN2210, 5E-IRH2200, 5E-IRC2200, 5E-CN2200, 5E Series, 5E-FL2350, 5E-FT2300, 5E-CLT2310, 5E-HGT2321, 5E-CS3800, 5E-IRS3600, 5E-IRSII, 5E-AS3200B, 5E-S3200
Supermini200, NEX QC, NEX QC+, ZSX Primus IV, NEX CG, ZSX Primus, ZSX Priums II, NEX QC+ QuantEZ, Mini-Z Sulfur, Mini-Z series, Mini-Z Al, Mini-Z Si, Mini-Z Cl, Mini-Z P, Mini-Z Zr, Mini-Z Ni, NEX DE, ZSX Primus III+, Simultix 15, NEX DE VS, Micro-Z ULS, NANOHUNTER II, AZX 400, ZSX Primus 400, KT-100S, NEX OL, NEX XT, NEX LS
P-Metrix, S-Mobile, S-Mobile PD, S-Mobile SDD, S-Mobile ULS, S-Mobile SDD LE, Petro-Marine, X-Calibur, X-Calibur SDD, X-Calibur SDD LE, Genius IF, RoHS, RoHS PD, RoHS SDD, X-Cite, X-Cite PD, X-Cite SDD, Nova, Vega, EX-6600, X-7600, Apollo
MGA-1000, BA-15 Benzene Analyzer, AL-2, AE-2, AH-1, AP-1, AP-1L, AP-1H, AP-1C
Envea Environment S.A.:
AC32M, AC32E-E-SERIES, AG22E, AS32M, CO12E, HC51M, O342E, VOC72M-VOC (BTEX), UT-3000, MP101M, MP1011M MP101M with CPM, MP101M with CPM Module, PM162M, SANOA, GRAPHITE 52M, LA S300XD, MIR 9000, MIR 9000CLD, HOFIBOX, MIR 9000H, AMESA, VM-3000, Mercury Tracker-3000 XS, UT-3000, LabAnalyzer 254, ALURA-254 Gold, PA-2, PA-2 Gold, SM-3, SM-4, SM-4 mobile, MMS, MMS-NG, UT-3000 NG mobile, MIR FT, MIR IS, Portable GRAPHITE 52M, SEC BOX, SM-4, TOPAZ 32M, AMESA-M Sampler, MIR 2M, BERYL 92M, MINI-CABINET DENOX, EGAS 2M, MICA 2M, ES 9010, AEP9010, HC 9010, COT 9010, SPALAX, TGD 152