How Calorimetry Works & How Leasing Benefits Your Lab
Whichever method or setup you need, the Excedr lease program is equipped to handle any and all device requests that your lab has. Contact us today to learn how calorimeter leasing can save you money and time.
All equipment brands/models are available
The Advantages of Excedr’s Calorimeter Leasing Program:
- Eliminates the upfront cost of purchasing equipment by spreading its cost over time
- Minimizes equipment downtime with included complete repair coverage and preventive maintenance
- Takes advantage of potentially 100% tax deductible* payments, providing you significant cash-savings
- Expedites the administrative work needed for instrument procurement and logistics
- Conserves working capital, enabling you to reinvest in your core business and operations (staffing, inventory, marketing/sales, etc.)
- Accommodates all manufacturer and model preferences
*Please consult your tax advisor to determine the full tax implications of leasing equipment.
Calorimetry measures the change in energy of an object or system by observing the heat transfer that occurs with its surroundings.
This heat exchange may occur due to physical changes, chemical reactions, or even sudden phase changes in the object or systems being observed. The energy change attribution can vary.
This type of measurement is able to determine if a chemical reaction resulted in the loss or absorbance of heat, referred to as exothermic reactions or endothermic reactions, respectively.
A calorimeter, which applies calorimetry to measure the amount of heat energy that is either lost or gained during some chemical or physical process, is a ubiquitous lab instrument found across several varying industries.
Calorimeters are used to find the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a system or object by one degree. This is known as finding a system’s heat capacity, and is expressed as joules per kelvin (J/K). When heat capacity is expressed in calories per gram, this is referred to as specific heat.
Calorimeters can also be used to determine entropy and enthalpy. Entropy measures how much energy is spread out in a process over time or how spread out the initial energy of a system becomes at constant temperature. Enthalpy, on the other hand, relates to entropy in that entropy is roughly the heat supplied—or change in enthalpy—divided by temperature.
In its most basic form, a calorimeter is an enclosed, well-insulated chamber, filled with a known reference material that can measure the heat of reaction inside the chamber. Water is often used because most of the important properties of it are already known.
Calorimetry Techniques, Advantages, & Costs
Performing thermal analysis on materials has uses in a wide variety of fields, including chemistry, material science, and thermodynamics. As a method for the measurement of heat, calorimetry can be applied to both solid and liquid fuel testing, as well as explosives testing, the study of heat energy (typically performed in academia), water treatment, and soil characterization, just to name a few.
There are also many types of calorimeters that differ based on what kind of reaction you are looking for or what specific experimental conditions you need.
This thermal analysis technique is used to look at heat exchange inside a system without having any heat transfer to its surroundings. This type of process is referred to as adiabatic. Ideally, when heat is generated in this type of setup, 100% of that heat will go toward increasing the system’s temperature, feeding the reaction.
The reaction will then generate more heat, accelerating the increase in temperature, and thus, the reaction. These devices are used to study so-called “runaway reactions” for this reason. It is important to note that no adiabatic calorimeter is completely adiabatic.
When looking at exothermic or endothermic properties of a chemical reaction, a reaction calorimeter is used. These devices are composed of an insulated jacket surrounding a reaction container.
The temperature measurement device should be submerged within the container. There are four main subcategories for reaction calorimeters:
- Heat Flow: This method focuses on the heat flow as it passes across the reactor’s wall. This means that the heat input or output is transferred from the insulating jacket to the samples. This then can be used to determine the amount of heat per unit of area per unit of time that is transferred. This is referred to as the heat flux.
- Heat Balance: The heat loss or gain of the process is controlled by the heating or cooling of the insulating jacket in this type. The heat transfer fluid is observed to determine any change in heat of the system.
- Power Compensation (PCC): A cooling jacket working at a constant temperature and a constant flow rate is used and the process temperature is controlled by adjusting the power being fed to an electrical heater. The power of the electrical heater is varied to maintain the desired temperature throughout the process.
- Constant Flux: Maintaining a constant temperature of the insulated jacket, constant flux calorimetry instead varies the area that the heat transfer occurs over by varying the geometry of the jacket.
Constant volume calorimeters, also known as bomb calorimeters, measure the heat energy of a reaction in an environment with a constant volume. Bomb calorimetry is used to look at temperature change within a combustion reaction.
Since the volume must remain the same, bomb calorimeters are built to withstand immense pressure that increases while the reactions occur within them. The basic components that make up this device include:
- The sample.
- Reactants like ignition wires that cause a reaction.
- A steel bomb, or stainless steel container, which acts as the reaction vessel. It is often submerged in the surrounding water and held inside an insulated container.
Additionally, there is a thermometer and a stirrer that monitor and move the water in the container.
As the name indicates, constant pressure calorimeters provide a constant pressure environment to measure the enthalpy change of a reaction, a material’s aversion to change. A simple example would be what is known as a coffee-cup calorimeter.
These calorimeters consist of two Styrofoam coffee cups nested in one another with a lid on top that has a hole for the thermometer and a stirring rod. A known solvent (such as water) is stored inside the innermost cup. With the outer cup acting as an insulator, the heat of combustion from the reaction is absorbed into the solvent and measured with the thermometer.
Constant pressure calorimeters are also called isobaric calorimeters.
Differential Scanning (DSC)
These devices observe how changes in a material’s temperature alter its heat capacity. While using a known material and monitoring the change in heat capacity, phase and physical changes can be detected with accuracy.
The speed and ease with which this thermal analysis technique can cause materials to hit these transition points are the reason why it is such a commonly used method.
There are two approaches to DSC, heat flux DSC and heat flow DSC.
- Heat Flow: This device measures the flow of thermal energy into a sample in one container by comparing it to the flow of thermal thermal energy into a separate reference container. In both cases, the containers are kept at a constant temperature through the entire reaction.
- Heat Flux: Similar to heat flow DSC, heat flux DSC compares the temperature difference between the sample and reference container as the temperature rise or fall occurs at a constant rate.
Isothermal Titration (ITC)
ITC is a technique used for quantitative studies of a wide variety of biomolecular reactions. It works by directly measuring the amount of heat that is either released or absorbed during a biomolecular binding event. Furthermore, ITC is the only technique capable of simultaneously measuring all binding parameters within a single experiment.
Being able to measure the heat transfer during binding enables accurate determination of binding constants (KD), reaction stoichiometry (n), enthalpy (∆H) and entropy (ΔS). This holistic view provides a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction. Isothermal titration calorimetry can also shed light on the mechanisms that underlie molecular interactions.
This deeper understanding of structure-function relationships offers scientists and researchers the confidence to make decisions in both hit selection and lead optimization.
At its heart, calorimeters and calorimetry use known physical or environmental properties to find unknown thermal properties of materials. Each method of calorimeter changes a different known variable and observes how that changes the sample’s amount of energy.
The many different types of methods, calibrations, and classifications of these types of equipment go to show how complex and specific thermal analysis can be.
Calorimetry can even be found in particle physics in the form of hadron and electromagnetic calorimeters. Both are used to better understand the smallest known units of matter in our universe by studying the heat energy of particles.
A hadronic calorimeter is currently being used at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in the study of the Higgs-Boson particle, however, not every application is so complex. The labels of any drink or food product that show how many calories are in food are derived using calorimetry.
Lease Any Calorimetric System with Excedr
Through our lease program, leasing a calorimeter has never been simpler. If you’re looking to lease a calorimeter, or are interested in other common laboratory equipment, like a lab-grade centrifuge, we can help.
Connect with us at +1 888-927-3802 or fill out our contact form so that we can discuss your needs in-depth and customize a leasing solution for you.
Operating leases provide three options at the end of the term. The lessee can return the equipment to the lessor, renew at a discounted rate, or purchase the instrument for the fair market value. Monthly payments are also 100% tax deductible, which yields additional monetary savings.
If you recently bought equipment, Excedr can offer you cash for your instrument and convert your purchase into a long-term rental. This is called a sale-leaseback. If you’ve paid for equipment within the last ninety days, we can help you recoup your investment and allow you to make low monthly payments, freeing up money in your budget instead of tying it down to a fixed asset.
Calorimetry Machine Manufacturers & Models on the Market
Discovery DSC Series, DSC25, DSC250, DSC2500, DSC25P, TAM Air, TAM IV, TAM IV-48, Multicell DSC, MC DSC, Nano DSC, Auto Nano DSC, Affinity ITC, Affinity ITC Auto, Nano ITC, SDT 650
6400 Automatic Isoperibol Calorimeter, 6200 Isoperibol Calorimeter, 6100 Compensated Jacket Calorimeter, 6050 Compensated jacket Calorimeter, 1341 Plain Jacket Calorimeter, 6725 Semi-micro Calorimeter
MicroCal VP-ITC, MicroCAL iTC200, MicroCal PEAQ-ITC, MicroCAL PEAQ-ITC Automated, MicroCal PEAQ-DSC Automated, MicroCal PEAQ-DSC, MicroCAL VP-DSC, MicroCal VP-Capillary DSC
C 200, C 200 h, C 200 h auto, C 200 auto, C 1 Package 1/10, C 1 Package 1/12, C 1 Package 2/10,C 1 Package 2/12, C 1 Package 3/10, C 1 Package 3/12, C 6000 global standards oxygen bomb calorimeter, C 6000 global standards Package 1/10, C 6000 global standards Package 1/12, 0010004532, C 6000 global standards Package 2/10, C 6000 global standards Package 2/12, C 6000 isoperibol oxygen bomb calorimeter, C 6000 isoperibol Package 1/10, C 6000 isoperibol Package 1/12, C 6000 isoperibol Package 2/10, C 6000 isoperibol Package 2/12
DSC7000 Series, DSC7000X, DSC7020
Instrument Specialist Thermal Analysis:
Instrument Specialist Incorporated:
DSC-Differential Scanning Calorimter, DSC, PDSC-Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimeter, PDSC, DSC-E-Differential Scanning Calorimeter External Cell, DSC-E
DSC-60 Plus Model, DSC-60A Plus Model
DSC 3, DSC 3+, Flash DSC 2+, HP DSC 2+, HS84 DSC hot stage system, HS82 hotstage system, TGA/DSC 3+ small furnace (SF), TGA/DSC 3+ large furnace (LF)
DSC 204 F1 Nevio, DSC 214 Nevio, Photo-DSC 204 F1 Phoenix, DSC 3500 Sirius, DSC 404 F1 Pegasus – High – Temperature DSC, DSC 214 Polyma, DSC 204 HP Phoenix – High-Pressure DSC, DSC 204 F1 Phoenix, DSC 404 F3 – High – Temperature DSC, Accelerated Rate Calorimeter 254, ARC 254, ARC 244, Multiple Module Calroimeter MMC 274 Nexus, Perseus STA 449 F1/F3 Jupiter, STA 449 F5 Jupiter, STA 2500 Regulus
Langavant Method Calorimeter, Digital Cement Calorimeter
I-Cal Flex, Biocal, Biocal 2000, Biocal 4000, I-Cal HPC, I-Cal 2000 HPC, I-Cal 4000 HPC, I-Cal 8000 HPC, I-Cal Ultra, F-Cal
Thermal Hazard Technology:
ARC, Accelerated Rate Calorimeter, EV+ Accelerated Rate Calorimeter, EV Accelerated Rate Calorimeter, Battery Performance Calorimeter, IBC, Isothermal Battery Calorimeter, IBC – Cylindrical, IBC – Prismatic, IBC – Coin Cell, IAC, Isothermal Air Calorimeter
Wobble Index Calorimeter/BTU, COSA 9610, COSA 9700, COSA 9750, COSA CV PRO, COSA CV-Sonic Pro
Custom Scientific Instruments:
Atlas HD, Atlas HD Reaction Calorimeter, Chemisens, Chemisens Calorimeter, Chemisens CPA202, Chemisens CPA201
FTT FAA Micro calorimeter
Setram Instrumentation KEP Technologies:
BT 2.15, C80, AlexSys, AlexSys-800, AlexSys-1000, MS80, C600, microSC-4c, HP Micro DSC, microDSC7 evo, µDSC7 EVO, MHTC 96, MHTC 96 hf-DSC, MHTC 96 drop, THEMYS STA DSC, THEMYS STA TG-DSC, SENSYS evo TG-DSC, SENSYS evo DSC, LABSYS evo DTA/DSC, SETSYS Evolution DSC, DSC131 evo, HP Micro DSC, HP µDSC
Chip-DSC 1, Chip-DSC 10, Chip-DSC 100, DSC PT1000DSC PT 1600
Simular, TSu, Phi-TEC I, Phi-TEC II, BTC, On-line heat flow Calorimetry